In addition to whole ships, a great number of fragments were found, often re-used in buildings, ramparts, or harbour constructions. Everywhere, old national stock exchanges were disappearing into larger units — whether through alliances or acquisitions. Osa keskusi tekkis seoses valispidise sekkumisega, kuigi tihedas koostoos kohaliku eliidiga. Wazny, T. In the southwestern part of the settlement there was a pagan temple, known from written sources, and next to it a two-roomed building where a small statuette of the god called Swiatowit was found Slupecki ,
On the coastal areas as well as in the lower reaches of big rivers, settlements were founded in whose economy traditional agriculture and hunting played a minor role.
These new type sites functioned as centres of production, trade, and service for merchants and travellers. Their existence was one of the phenomena that distinguishes ancient times from the Early Middle Ages--Viking Age in the northern Europe.
The emergence of the ports of trade Karl Polanyi, who has treated and defined ports of trade 2 in his writings, has suggested that one of the most important characteristic in defining sites is their location Polanyi;3. Ports of trade were situated at the River Trading System of trade routes, in most cases in naturally protected places like river estuaries, or on the shores of fjords or bays.
A location like that was essential for security. Normally, the ports of trade also marked political, cultural, ethnic, or geographical borders.
Security was needed by the local society which feared attacks by large numbers of well-armoured men who were interested in finding loots and slaves. Therefore, the emporia were situated in a so-called "no man's land".
Another important precondition for an emporium was the protection given by local chieftains. They were bribed with luxury goods, especially weapons of very high quality. Their support was necessary to guarantee peace and safe conditions for trade. Characteristically, cult and religious centres can be found inside emporia or in their vicinity.
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In many archaic societies, priests possessed strong power over the people, and they were also interested in the profits obtained from trade. Very often the priests were also well-qualified craftsmen, like the Benedictine monk Theophilus Presbyter, who described the early medieval jewellery techniques in his Diversarum Artium Schedula. Craft working in general was one of the most important activities of the emporia, and usually it developed quite soon into mass production.
Tools, weapons, jewellery and other products were distributed both in local and foreign markets. Traces of blacksmithery, horn and amber products, glassmaking, weaving, boat building and other crafts are often Nullhinnaga kauplemise strateegia in these kind of sites.
A vital role in the existence of emporia was played by trade, both long-distance trade and barter of a more local character. The ports of trade were meeting points for merchants from distant lands. The tradesmen could exchange or sell goods directly in the emporia, or just use them for storing their wares temporarily, awaiting further transportation.
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- On the coastal areas as well as in the lower reaches of big rivers, settlements were founded in whose economy traditional agriculture and hunting played a minor role.
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To make this possible, special storehouses where large amounts of goods could be deposited, were erected in such places. People from the local society supplied the places with food, drink and other necessary products. Among the exchange articles, River Trading System and livestock 8 were probably of the greatest importance, but the locals could also sell furs, salt, honey, craft products, and other goods. Another important object of trade River Trading System slaves.
The emporia were places where people from different parts of the Viking world met each other; different economic systems, for example autarkic barter exchange and medieval money markets co-existed there Dalton Several attempts have been made to sort out a pattern in the emergence of emporia. Although some of them have been heavily criticized because of their high degree of simplification, others can be useful for drawing some guide lines in the general pattern.
Some factors can be pointed out as essential for the rise of emporia. Of primary importance is overproduction by the community in the district. Most significant was the increase in agricultural production related to the beginning of rye cultivation. Simultaneously with this came the development of craft skills, especially in blacksmith work, which now provided better and better tools.
Any surplus of local products was traded for other goods inaccessible to the area. The second important factor was the consolidation of ethnic relationships, which provided for the strengthening of trans-regional bonds. The population of the community increased. In such a community, people were needed who wanted to, and had the possibility to, take the risk of transacting business. Rulers supported these River Trading System by securing them with a guard, by protecting them and by guaranteeing peace in the places of exchange.
The community had an organized structure and the technical requirements essential for the exchange of goods, like transport, communication routes, and separate places designed for the exchange.
An important factor was the change in social structure, which led to the rise of a powerful and wealthy aristocracy and the consolidation of power in their hands. This top stratum gathered the surplus of production. In eastern and southern countries this resulted in the emergence of hill-fort centres. For the reasons mentioned above, trade contacts with the western part of Europe increased.
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As a consequence, contacts with the Islamic world were established, which in turn caused special places for the exchange of goods obtained mainly from long-distance trade, to get their start. These factors had different effects in different regions around the Baltic Sea, at the same time bringing about the emergence of a relatively uniform type of trade centres on the coast.
Emporia were River Trading System suburbia but completely independent settlements, topographically unconnected with the local political-military centres Herrmann;; Blomkvist The increase of production and the emergence of trading centres in North Europe was connected with the cultural changes in the European Barbaricum at the end of antiquity and the beginning of the early Middle Ages.
This kind of site was widespread over the whole of Europe, from Ireland to Russia. Among them, the areas of activity of the Slavs, the Scandinavians, the Finns and the Balts formed a distinct group around the Baltic Sea Fig. These places formed a part of a Baltic economic zone in the Viking Age Malowist; Losinski b, One of its most distinctive features was River Trading System use of hacked silver scrap as means of payment both in long distance trade and on local markets Kiersnowski ; Hatz ; Callmer;; Hardh ; Bogucki In the early Middle Ages, European post-Roman towns were used mainly as residential sites for aristocracy, as well as for political and ecclesiastical administration.
Early urban centres--emporia--may have had a similar function in Scandinavia and other districts around the Baltic Sea. Their growth in the Baltic zone was, as in the rest of Europe, probably connected with the development of central power. In several places in Scandinavia, the important role royal power played in the function of these ports is noteworthy.
In other regions, on the other hand, such a relationship cannot be detected. This is true in particular for the Slavonic area, where it is hard to believe that a political power with royal character developed before the 10th century. The first River Trading System arrived on the southern costs of the Baltic Sea in the late 6th century, but the real Slavic occupation of the area cannot be dated River Trading System than the 7th-8th century Dulinicz Archaeological investigations in the area have indicated that changes in social structure began in the late 8th and early 9th centuries Lonsinski; b, The concentration of settlements in the 8th century created preconditions for the existence of emporia in the western Slavonic area.
In the course of the following centuries, the Vistula River constituted a political and cultural border between the Slavs and the Prussians. It was indicated by different settlement patterns and in different dynamics of economic and demographic growth Godlowski The whole district of River Trading System with socially and politically well-organized tribes became a region of interest for foreign merchants, who came there to exchange their silver and other goods for food, salt and slaves.
I will describe, therefore, only the sites which were situated in the territory of present-day Poland. The land between the Odra and Vistula Rivers was inhabited by Slavic tribes, each politically independent, but still forming one larger tribal community. In written sources, they were called the Pomeranians Piskorski Their neighbours to the west River Trading System the Obodrites, a Slavic ethnic group, while to the east they were the Prussians.
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The emporia on the territory of present Poland 2. The importance of Wolin is underscored by several written sources. It has twelve gates. It has a port, built of bisected tree trunks. They are fighting with Mesko, and their striking force is strong. They do not have a king and they do not allow one [leader] to provide for them.
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Their rulers are seniors. In Scandinavian tradition, there is a tale about brave Jomsvikingar, 12 who controlled the waters of the southern Baltic Sea. The history of Wolin created a base for fantastic tales about River Trading System incredibly rich town Vineta, which sunk into the sea like the ancient Atlantis, because of the pride and arrogance of its inhabitants.
For 12th century writers, it was hard to believe that Wolin, by this time declined, had been one of the biggest towns in the region just years before. It developed from a small village into a big town. Its development was directly linked to its local hinterland.
CHINEESE RIVER CIVILIZATION Süžeeskeem Poolt gabriela_huaman
The beginning of Wolin is difficult to recapitulate for various reasons. The most important is that Wolin exists as a town into our times. Therefore, as in other such cases for example Visbythe archaeological data of its beginning is random. Opinions on the early days of the town vary from document to document.
Unfortunately, only a little of the archaeological evidence has River Trading System published, and it is, therefore, difficult to prove these theories. Based on the facts known to date, it seems however correct to date the beginning of Wolin to the end of the 8th century, without excluding the possibility of some earlier, 7th-8th century, occupation at the place Dulinicz The possible earlier occupation probably can not be treated as a centre of production and trade.
The development of Wolin into an River Trading System took place mainly during the period from the 9th to the 11th century. During this time, there co-existed a large complex of different sites--a hill-fort, an early town with rampart, a harbour, several cemeteries, and a pagan temple.
The earliest traces indicating the importance of the place date back to the Migration Period. Postholes along the river bank witness constructions built from the mid-5th to the 8th century.
Ceramics belonging to the 5th and 6th centuries have been found. Nevertheless the River Trading System of finds were mixed with later, medieval ones. In Karsibor, in the vicinity of Wolin, a hoard of early Byzantine solidi t. This evidence demonstrates the importance of River Trading System region, and stresses the leading role of Wolin among other settlements. Still, the 5th-8th-century site cannot be considered an emporium, let alone an early town Filipowiak; From the very end of the 8th to the middle of the 10th century, there was a settlement on the left bank of the Dziwna River.
Houses recorded there had been built on piles, in horizontal log technique. Finds of iron slag prove the presence of blacksmiths there. In the southern part of the settlement, there had been a large ditch, probably forming part of a River Trading System system, in the first half of the 9th century. The stockade rampart was built in the second half of the 9th century.